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Serra Taylor, J. A., & Irizarry-Robles, C. Y. (2015). Protective factors for depression in an elderly sample of Puerto Rico : self-efficacy, educational level and other socio-demographic variables. Acta Colombiana De Psicología, 18(1), 125–134. https://doi.org/10.14718/ACP.2015.18.1.12
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Abstract

The aim of this descriptive-correlational study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy, educational level and depressive symptoms in order to identify protective factors for depression in a sample of elderly people in Puerto Rico. Other socio-demographic variables such as marital status, living arrangements, and sex were examined in relation to self-efficacy and depressive symptoms. The selected sample consisted of 45 participants ranging in age from 60 to 86 years old (M=69; SD=7.37). Measures employed included the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (1965) and the Baessler and Schwarcer’s General Self-Efficacy Scale (1996). The hypothesis stated that the level of depressive symptoms would be lower when there is higher self-efficacy and higher educational level in a sample of Puerto Rican elderly people. Statistical analysis included t tests, the Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression Coefficient. Statistically significant differences for selfefficacy and educational level were found between those who did not show depressive symptoms and those with moderate to severe depression. In addition, higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-efficacy were found in those who had widowed. Results suggest that high levels of education and self-efficacy are protective factors for depression in elderly people, while widowhood is a risk factor for depression.

Keywords:

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