Cómo citar
Andrade-Calderón , P., Salvador-Cruz , J., & Sosa-Ortiz , A. L. (2015). Impacto positivo de la terapia del lenguaje en afasia progresiva no fluente. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 18(2), 101-114. https://doi.org/10.14718/ACP.2015.18.2.9

Resumen

El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los efectos de una intervención intensiva de terapia del lenguaje en un caso de afasia progresiva no fluente (APNF). Este es un síndrome demencial caracterizado por un déficit progresivo en la fluidez del lenguaje expresivo y el análisis sintáctico, y por agramatismo y parafasias fonémicas. Aunque en las primeras etapas no presenta alteraciones en la memoria, la comprensión o el procesamiento visual, sí pueden presentarse ligeros cambios en la personalidad. Para analizar los efectos de la terapia del lenguaje en este síndrome, se utilizó un diseño de caso único con pre y post prueba. El participante fue un paciente masculino de 84 años con APNF, quien durante doce meses recibió una terapia de lenguaje semanal para estimular el procesamiento fonológico, léxico y sintáctico. Se le realizó una evaluación neuropsicológica en tres etapas: seis meses antes del inicio de la terapia, después de seis meses de intervención, y al completar 12 meses de esta. Específicamente se evaluó el procesamiento lingüístico, la cognición general, los síntomas neuropsiquiátricos, la calidad de vida (CdV) y las actividades de la vida diaria (AVD). Como resultado de la terapia, el paciente mostró ligeras mejorías en la prosodia, la fluidez y el contenido del lenguaje espontáneo, y una mejoría significativa en la repetición, la lectura en voz alta y las praxias orofonatorias. Otros aspectos cognitivos (orientación, denominación verbal, praxias y memoria) se mantuvieron estables; las AVD y la CdV mejoraron. Se concluye que la terapia del lenguaje prolongada puede mejorar el procesamiento lingüístico y también tener un impacto positivo en otros procesos cognitivos y socio-emocionales en la APNF. La intervención no solo disminuyó la velocidad del deterioro cognitivo, sino que permitió ver el mantenimiento de los logros y la mejoría de los síntomas, lo cual es un éxito en el tratamiento de la APNF, debido a su rápida progresión.

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Derechos de autor 2015 Paola Andrade-Calderón

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