Cómo citar
Pilatti , A., Rivarola Montejano , G., Nillus , M., Fernandez , M. S., & Pautassi , R. M. (2021). Factores que diferencian el consumo frecuente y esporádico de marihuana en estudiantes universitarios. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 25(1), 87-104. https://doi.org/10.14718/ACP.2022.25.1.7

Resumen

Aunque el consumo de marihuana es altamente prevalente entre universitarios de Argentina, poco se sabe respecto a los factores que permiten distinguir a los consumidores frecuentes de marihuana de quienes consumen esporádicamente. Por esta razón, en el presente trabajo se indagó sobre las posibles variaciones en los contextos de consumo, motivos de consumo, normas percibidas y estrategias conductuales de protección entre universitarios con consumo frecuente o esporádico de marihuana, y se analizó la utilidad de este conjunto de variables para distinguir entre estos los tipos de consumidores mencionados. Para ello, se contó con una muestra de 1083 estudiantes universitarios argentinos que completó una encuesta en línea sobre el consumo de sustancias. En particular, este trabajo se realizó con la submuestra que reportó consumir marihuana en los últimos 30 días (n = 158; 51.3 % mujeres). Dicha encuesta interrogaba sobre el consumo de marihuana y las consecuencias negativas asociadas, así como por motivos de consumo, normas sociales percibidas y estrategias conductuales de protección. Como resultado, los consumidores frecuentes presentaron mayor cantidad de consecuencias negativas (M = 4.92) que los consumidores esporádicos (M = 1.82; p ≤ .05), y se halló un perfil distintivo en un conjunto de variables. A nivel multivariado, los motivos de animación (or = 1.230; p ≤ .05), las estrategias conductuales de protección (or = .941; p ≤ .05), el consumo en solitario (or = 2.024; p ≤ .05) y el consumo en fiestas universitarias (or = 2.669; p ≤ .05) discriminaron significativamente entre ambas clases de consumidores. En general, los hallazgos revelaron subpoblaciones heterogéneas de consumidores de marihuana que difieren no solo en el consumo y sus consecuencias, sino también en los contextos de consumo y en un conjunto de variables relevantes. Estas subpoblaciones distintivas requieren de intervenciones diferentes y específicas.

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