How to Cite
Vieira Linhares, L. V. L., & Rosas Torres, A. R. . (2022). She deserved it: Analysis of variables that influence the accountability of victims of sexual violence. Acta Colombiana De Psicología, 25(1), 218–229. https://doi.org/10.14718/ACP.2022.25.1.14
License
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:

 Acta Colombiana de Psicología complies with international intellectual property and copyright laws, and particularly with Article No. 58 of the Political Constitution of Colombia, Law No. 23 of 1982, and the Agreement No. 172 of September 30, 2010 (Universidad Católica de Colombia Intellectual Property Regulation).

 Authors retain their copyright and grant to the Acta Colombiana de Psicología the right of first publication, with the work registered under Creative Commons attribution license, which allows third parties to use the published material, provided they credit the authorship of the work and the first publication in this Journal.

Abstract

This article aims to analyze the effect of the combination of the variables - victim characteristics (skin color and normativity), observer sex, Belief in a Just World, and ambivalent sexism - on sexual violence victim blaming. Three studies were conducted with university students (Study 1, N=288; Study 2, N=226; Study 3, N=307), who were asked to answer some items on victim blaming, Belief in a Just World, and Ambivalent Sexism. The ANOVA and ANCOVA analyses have shown that the combination of these variables resulted in higher black and counter-normative victim blaming. The results confirmed that victim skin color, victim normativity, and the observer sex influence victim blaming for sexual violence (study 1); that bjw predicts the attribution of the victim’s accountability for sexual violence (study 2), and that only benevolent sexism, together with bjw, was responsible for predicting victim blaming for sexual violence (study 3).

Keywords:

References

Abrahams, N., Devries, K., Watts, C., Pallitto, C., Petzold, M., Shamu, S., & GarcÍa-Moreno, C. (2014). Worldwide prevalence of non-partner sexual violence: a systematic review. The Lancet, 383(9929), 1648-1654. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62243-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62243-6

Abrams, D., Viki, G. T., Masser, B., & Bohner, G. (2003). Perceptions of stranger and acquaintance rape: The role of benevolent and hostile sexism in victim blame and rape proclivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 111. https://doi. org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.111 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.111

Adams-Clark, A. A., & Chrisler, J. C. (2018). What constitutes rape? The effect of marital status and type of sexual act on perceptions of rape scenarios. Violence Against Women, 24(16), 1867-1886. https://doi. org/10.1177/1077801218755975 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801218755975

Aguiar, P., Vala, J., Correia, I., & Pereira, C. (2008). Justice in our world and in that of others: Belief in a just world and reactions to victims. Social Justice Research, 21(1), 50-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-007-0059-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-007-0059-3

Angelone, D. J., Mitchell, D., & Smith, D. (2018). The influence of gender ideology, victim resistance, and spiking a drink on acquaintance rape attributions. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(20), 3186-3210. https://doi. org/10.1177/0886260516635318 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516635318

Burt, M. R. (1980). Cultural myths and supports for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(2), 217–230. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.38.2.217 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.38.2.217

Cialdini, R. B., & Trost, M. R. (1998). Social influence: Social norms, conformity and compliance. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (p. 151–192). McGraw-Hill.

Donovan, R. A. (2007). To blame or not to blame: Influences of target race and observer sex on rape blame attribution. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(6), 722-736. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260507300754 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260507300754

Eyssel, F., & Bohner, G. (2008). Modern rape myths: The Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression (AMMSA) Scale. In M. A. Morrison & T. G. Morrison (Eds.), The psychology of modern prejudice (pp. 261– 276). Nova Science Publishers. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t02749-000

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175-191. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146

Formiga, N. S., Gouveia, V. V., & Santos, M. N. (2002). Inventário de Sexismo Ambivalente: sua adaptação e relação com o gênero. Psicologia em Estudo, 7(1), 103-111.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ S1413-73722002000100013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-73722002000100013

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 491–512. https://doi. org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.491 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.491

Glick, P. & Fiske, S. T. (2001). An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications for gender inequality. American Psychologist, 56, 109 – 118. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.2.109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.2.109

Halabi, S., Statman, Y., & Dovidio, J. F. (2015). Attributions of responsibility and punishment for ingroup and outgroup members: The role of just world beliefs. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 18(1), 104-115. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430214546067 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430214546067

Hockett, J. M., Smith, S. J., Klausing, C. D., & Saucier, D. A. (2016). Rape myth consistency and gender differences in perceiving rape victims: A meta-analysis. Violence Against Women, 22(2), 139-167. https:// doi.org/10.1177/1077801215607359 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801215607359

Judd, C. M., McClelland, G. H., & Culhane, S. E. (1995). Data analysis: Continuing issues in the everyday analysis of psychological data. Annual Review of Psychology, 46(1), 433-465. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195 .002245 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195.002245

Katz, J., Merrilees, C., Hoxmeier, J. C., & Motisi, M. (2017). White female bystanders’ responses to a black woman at risk for incapacitated sexual assault. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 41(2), 273-285. https://doi. org/10.1177/0361684316689367 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684316689367

Landström, S., Strömwall, L. A., & Alfredsson, H. (2016). Blame attributions in sexual crimes: Effects of belief in a just world and victim behavior.Nordic Psychology, 68(1), 2-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/19012276.2015.1026921 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19012276.2015.1026921

Lerner, M. J., & Miller, D. T. (1978). Just world research and the attribution process: Looking back and ahead. Psychological Bulletin, 85(5), 1030-1051. https:// doi:10.1037/0033-2909.85.5.1030. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.85.5.1030

Lerner, M.J. & Simmons, C.H. (1966) Observer’s reaction to the innocent victim: Compassion or rejection? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(2), 203-210. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023562 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023562

Lewis, J. A., Mendenhall, R., Harwood, S. A., & Browne Huntt, M. (2016). “Ain’t I a woman?” Perceived gendered racial microaggressions experienced by Black women. The Counseling Psychologist, 44(5), 758-780. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000016641193 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000016641193

Linhares, Torres & Pereira (2021, no prelo). Revised scale of Belief in a Just World Based on Popular Sayings.

Modesto, J. G., & Pilati, R. (2016). “Nem todas as vítimas importam”: Crenças no mundo justo, relações intergrupais e responsabilização de vítimas [“ Not all victims matter”: belief in a just world, intergroup relations and victim blaming]. Trends in Psychology, 25(2), 763-774. http://dx.doi.org/10.9788/TP2017.2-18Pt. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9788/TP2017.2-18Pt

Murdoch, A., & Gonsalkorale, K. (2017). Attributions of blame in acquaintance rape scenarios: the role of blame scale presentation order. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 24(6), 853-865. https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719 .2017.1315787 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2017.1315787

Pinciotti, C. M., & Orcutt, H. K. (2017). Understanding gender differences in rape victim blaming: The power of social influence and just world beliefs. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(1-2), 255-275. https://doi. org/10.1177/0886260517725736 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517725736

Strömwall, L. A., Alfredsson, H., & Landström, S. (2013). Rape victim and perpetrator blame and the Just World hypothesis: The influence of victim gender and age. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 19(2), 207-217. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552600.2012.683455 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13552600.2012.683455

Suarez, E., & Gadalla, T. M. (2010). Stop blaming the victim: A meta-analysis on rape myths. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(11), 2010-2035. https://doi. org/10.1177/0886260509354503 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260509354503

Süssenbach, P., & Bohner, G. (2011). Acceptance of sexual aggression myths in a representative sample of German residents. Aggressive Behavior, 37(4), 374-385. https:// doi.org/10.1002/ab.20390 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20390

Viki, G.T., Abrams, D. (2002). But She Was Unfaithful: Benevolent Sexism and Reactions to Rape Victims Who Violate Traditional Gender Role Expectations. Sex Roles, 47, 289–293. https://doi. org/10.1023/A:1021342912248 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021342912248

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Reference by

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Sistema OJS 3 - Metabiblioteca |