Cómo citar
Reyna , C., & Brussino , S. (2015). Diferencias de edad y género en comportamiento social, temperamento y regulación emocional en niños argentinos. Acta Colombiana de Psicología, 18(2), 51-64. https://doi.org/10.14718/ACP.2015.18.2.5

Resumen

El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar las diferencias en función de la edad, el género y el nivel socio-económico en el comportamiento social (habilidades sociales y problemas de conducta), la atención focalizada, el control inhibitorio, la emocionalidad (positiva y negativa) y la regulación emocional (positiva y negativa) en niños argentinos de tres, cinco y siete años de edad. Se realizó un estudio evolutivo transversal en el cual participaron los padres y docentes de 623 niños. Los padres brindaron información acerca de aspectos socio-demográficos, y sobre el temperamento y procesos emocionales de los niños, mientras que los docentes lo hicieron con respecto al comportamiento social de los niños. El estudio de las comparaciones entre grupos se efectuó a través de análisis de varianza. Las diferencias más marcadas se atribuyeron, en primer lugar, a la edad de los niños, y en segundo lugar, al género. En términos generales, los niños de tres años mostraron un menor desempeño que el resto de los grupos, pero el desarrollo no fue lineal en todos los procesos ya que los niños de cinco años presentaron un desempeño semejante o mejor en comparación con los niños de siete años, según algunas variables.

Licencia

Derechos de autor 2015 Cecilia Reyna

Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.

Citas

Achenbach, T.M. (1966). The classification of children’s psychiatric cymptoms: A factor-analytic study. Psychological Monographs, 80(7), 1–37.

Bandeira, M., Silva Rocha, S., Cordeiro Freitas, L., Pereira Del Prette, Z.A. & Del Prette, A. (2006). Habilidades sociais e variáveis sociodemográficas em estudantes do ensino fundamental. Psicologia em Estudo, 11(3), 541–549.

Bradley, R.H. & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371–399.

Bridges, L.J., Denham, S.A. & Ganiban, J.M. (2004). Definitional issues in emotion regulation research. Child Development, 75(2), 340–345.

Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55–71.

Brophy-Herb, H. E., Lee, R. E., Nievar, M. A. & Stollak, G. (2007). Preschoolers’ social competence: Relations to family characteristics, teacher behaviors and classroom climate. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28(2), 134–148.

Cicchetti, D. & Toth, S.L. (1991). A developmental perspective on internalizing and externalizing disorders of childhood. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology: Internalizing and externalizing expressions of dysfunction (Vol. 2, pp. 1–19). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Cole, P.M., Martin, S.E. & Dennis, T. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75(2), 317–333.

Comisión de Enlace Institucional, AAM-SAIMO-CEIM (2006). Nivel socio-económico 2006. Recuperado en diciembre de 2008 de http://www.saimo.org.ar/socios/Socios/NSE2006-23nov2006Informe_final.pdf .

Connor, D.F. (2002). Aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. New York: The Guilford Press.

Cummings, E.M., Braungart-Rieker, J. & Du Rocher Schudlich, T. (2003). Emotion and personality development in childhood. In I. B. Weiner (Ed.), R. M. Lerner, M. A. Easterbrooks & J. Mistry (Vol. Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of Psychology, Vol. 6: Developmental Psychology (pp.211–239). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Diamond, L.M. & Aspinwall, L.G. (2003). Emotion regulation across the life span: An integrative perspective emphasizing self-regulation, positive affect, and dyadic processes. Motivation & Emotion, 27(2), 125–156.

Eisenberg, N. & Spinrad, T.L. (2004). Emotion-related regulation: Sharpening the definition. Child Development, 75(2), 334–339.

Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Spinrad, T.L., Fabes, R.A., Shepard, S.A. & Reiser, M. (2001). The relations of regulation and emotionality to children’s externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child Development, 72(4), 1112–1134.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R.A. & Guthrie, I.K. (1997). Coping with stress. The roles of regulation and development. In S. A. Wolchik & L. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping: Linking theory and intervention (pp. 41–70). New York: Plenum.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Guthrie, I.K. & Reiser, M. (2000). Dispositional emotionality and regulation: Their role in predicting quality of social functioning. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78(1), 136–157.

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Guthrie, I.K., Murphy, B.C., Maszk, P., Holmgren, R. & Suh, K. (1996). The relations of regulation and emotionality to problem behavior in elementary school children. Development and Psychopathology, 8(1), 141–162.

Eisenberg, N., Zhou, Q., Losoya, S.H., Fabes, R.A., Shepard, S.A., Murphy, B. C.,… Cumberland, A. (2003). The relations of parenting, effortful control, and ego control of children’s emotional expressivity. Child Development, 74(3), 875–895.

Else-Quest, N.M., Hyde, J.S., Goldsmith, H.H. & Van Hulle, C.A. (2006). Gender differences in temperament: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 33–72.

Garner, P.W. & Spears, F.M. (2000). Emotion regulation in low-income preschoolers. Social Development, 9(2), 246–264.

Gartstein, M.A. & Rothbart, M.K. (2003). Studying infant temperament via the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Infant Behavior and Development, 26(1), 64–86.

George, D. & Mallery, M.P. (2001). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Gottlieb, G. (2003). On making behavioral genetics truly developmental. Human Development, 46(6), 337–355.

Grantham-McGregor, S., Cheung, Y.B., Cueto, S., Glewwe, P., Richter, L. & Strupp, B. (2007). Child development in developing countries 1: Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet, 369(9555), 60–70.

Gresham, F.M. (2001). Assessment of social skills in children and adolescents. In D. H. Saklofske, J. J. W. Andrews & H. L. Janzen (Eds.), Handbook of Psychoeducational Assessment: A practical handbook (pp. 325−355). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Gresham, F.M., Sugai, G. & Horner, R.H. (2001). Interpreting outcomes of social skills training for students with highincidence disabilities. Exceptional Children, 67(3), 331–344.

Guerin, D.W. & Gottfried, A.W. (1994). Developmental stability and change in parent reports of temperament: A ten-year longitudinal investigation from infancy through preadolescence. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40(3), 334–355.

Hill, A., Degnan, K., Calkins, S.D. & Keane, S.P. (2006). Profiles of externalizing behavior problems for boys and girls across preschool: The roles of emotion regulation and inattention. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 913–928.

Holodynski, M. & Friedlmeier, W. (2006). Development of emotions and emotion regulation. New York: Springer.

Keenan, K. & Shaw, D. (1997). Developmental and social influences on young girls’ early problem behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 95–113.

Keiley, M.K., Lofthouse, N., Bates, J.E., Dodge, K.A. & Pettit, G.S. (2003). Differential risks of covarying and pure components in mother and teacher reports of externalizing and internalizing behavior across ages 5 to 14. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(3), 267–283.

Kochanska, G., Murray, K. & Harlan, E.T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Development Psychology, 36(2), 220–232.

Kovacs, M. & Devline, B. (1998). Internalizing disorders in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(1), 47–63.

Lacunza, A. B. (2014). Social skills of children in vulnerable conditions in Northern Argentina. In A. Castro Solano (Ed.), Positive Psychology in Latin America (pp. 213-229). New York: Springer.

Macdonald, J. A., Beauchamp, M. H., Crigan, J. A. & Anderson, P. J. (2014). Age-related differences in inhibitory control in the early school years. Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence, 20(5), 509-526.

Merrell, K.W. (2003). Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales, Second Edition: Spanish Language Version. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Miner, J.L. & Clarke-Stewart, K.A. (2008). Trajectories of externalizing behavior from age 2 to age 9: Relations with gender, temperament, ethnicity, parenting, and rater. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 771–786.

Murphy, B.C., Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Shepard, S. & Guthrie, I.K. (1999). Consistency and change in children’s emotionality and regulation: A longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45(3), 413–444.

Ostrov, J.M. & Keating, C.F. (2004). Gender differences in preschool aggression during free play and structured interactions: An observational study. Social Development, 13(2), 255–277.

Persson, G.E. B. (2005). Developmental perspectives on prosocial and aggressive motives in preschoolers’ peer interactions. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(1), 80–91.

Posner, M.I. & Rothbart, M.K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12(3), 427–441.

Propper, C. & Rigg, J. (2007). Socio-cconomic status and child behaviour: Evidence from a contemporary UK cohort (CASE Paper 125). Recuperado de http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/CASEpaper125.pdf .

Reyna, C.E. & Brussino, S.A. (2009a). Propiedades psicométricas de la escala de comportamiento preescolar y jardín infantil en una muestra de niños argentinos de 3 a 7 años. Psykhe, 18(2), 127–140.

Reyna, C.E. & Brussino, S.A. (2009b). Temperamento infantil: Estudio de fiabilidad de escalas del Cuestionario de Conducta Infantil de Rothbart. Libro del XIII Congreso Argentino de Psicología, Compromiso social frente a las problemáticas actuales (pp. 769-775). Córdoba: CPPC.

Reyna, C.E., Ison, M.S. & Brussino, S.A. (2011). Comportamiento social y procesamiento de la información social en niños argentinos. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 11(1), 57–78.

Rose-Krasnor, L. (1997). The nature of social competence: A theoretical review. Social Development, 6(1), 111–135.

Rothbart, M.K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52(2), 569–578.

Rothbart, M.K. & Bates, J.E. (1998). Temperament. In W. Damon (Serie Ed.), N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.). Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp.105–176). New York: Wiley.

Rothbart, M.K., Ahadi, S.A. & Evans, D.E. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78(1), 122–135.

Rothbart, M.K., Ahadi, S., Hershey, K.L. & Fisher, P. (2001). Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire. Child Development, 72(5), 1394–1408.
Rothbart, M.K., Chew, K.H. & Gartstein, M.A. (2001). Assessment of temperament in early development. In L.T. Singer & P.S. Zeskind. (Eds.), Biobehavioral assessment of the infant (pp. 190–208). New York: Guildford Press.

Rydell, A.-M., Berlin, L. & Bohlin, G. (2003). Emotionality, emotion regulation, and adaptation among 5- to 8-year-old children. Emotion, 3(1), 30–47.

Saygili, G. (2014). Social skills of children in public primary school in Turkey: A case study. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 5(1), 148-152.

Sewrud-Clikeman, M. (2007). Social competence in children. New York: Springer.

Sheridan, S.M. & Walker, D. (1999). Social skills in context: Considerations for assessment, intervention, and generaliza- tion. In C.R. Reynolds & T.B. Gutkin (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology (3rd ed., pp.686–708). New York: Wiley.

Shiner, R.L. & Caspi, A. (2003). Personality differences in childhood and adolescence: Measurement, development, and consequences. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(1), 2–32.

Souza, F. & Rodrigues, M.M.P. (2002). A segregação sexual na interação de crianças de 8 e 9 anos. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 15(3), 489–496.

Tabachnick, B. & Fidell, L. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Teague, R.J.P. (2005). Social functioning in preschool children: Can social information processing and self-regulation skills explain sex differences and play a role in preventing ongoing problems? (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Griffith University, Australia.

Thompson, R.A. & Goodvin, R. (2007). Taming the tempest in the teapot: Emotion regulation in toddlers. In C. A. Brownell & C. B. Kopp (Eds.), Transitions in early socioemotional development: The toddler years (pp.320–344). New York: Guilford.

Trianes, M.V., Muñoz, A.M. & Jiménez, M. (1997). Competencia social: su educación y tratamiento. Madrid: Pirámide.

Vahedi, S., Farrokhi, F. & Farajian, F. (2012). Social competence and behavior problems in preschool children. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 7(3), 126-134.

Vaughan Sallquist, J., Eisenberg. N., Spinrad, T.L., Reiser, M., Hofer, C., Liew, J.,… Eggum, N. (2009). Positive and negative emotionality: Trajectories across six years and relations with social competence. Emotion, 9(1), 15–28.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.
Sistema OJS 3 - Metabiblioteca |